Can Hashcat crack passworded .bin files?
Complete noob to hashcat here, and I've been looking through the documentation for the usage of Hashcat but I'm sorta lost on how to find the hash to a passworded .bin file.
Extension ".bin" means nothing. 

At first, you need to know what software has been used to create encrypted file. Next step you have to find info how this software encrypts data. When you'll know all above you can search for way to decrypt. Maybe hashcat can help you, maybe can't.